How does the XFP transceiver transmit ultra-long distances?
The fiber optic network formed by the XFP transceiver is suitable for long-distance, high-capacity communications. In the long distance transmission, the need to use the repeater to amplify the long distance transmission and weakened signal, like the relay race, a person tired when the need for a person to continue forward. In the optical fiber network, the fewer the number of relay stations, the lower the cost of the system, the higher the reliability. The maximum distance of the XFP transceiver is the longest distance that can be transmitted without a repeater between the optical transmitter and the optical receiver,

When designing an optical fiber communication system, it is important to calculate the maximum relay distance.

The maximum relay distance of the fiber optic transmission system is determined by four factors.

1. The transmitter outputs the average optical power of the fiber into the fiber. The greater the power coupled to the fiber, the longer the relay distance.
2. Fiber dispersion, if the fiber dispersion, then after a certain distance after the transmission of the waveform distortion is serious. The longer the transmission distance, the more serious the waveform distortion. In digital communication systems, waveform distortion will cause inter-symbol interference, so that the light receiving sensitivity is reduced, affecting the system's relay distance.
3. Loss of fiber. Loss of fiber optic lines, including optical fiber connector loss and loss of fiber welding, of course, is the optical fiber per kilometer loss. If the loss of optical fiber per kilometer, the smaller the loss of the signal optical power on the fiber, the farther the transmission distance of the optical signal in the fiber.
4. The sensitivity of the optical receiver satisfies a certain bit error rate requirement. The higher the reception sensitivity, the smaller the minimum received optical power that satisfies the system bit error rate, the longer the relay distance.
For an optical fiber communication system, the transmit optical power and the light receiving sensitivity are generally known, and the factors that affect the relay distance are loss limiting and dispersion limitation. For single-mode optical fiber communication system, the transmission rate of 140Mb / s or less of the system is generally only limited by the loss of dispersion has little effect; and transmission rate of 565Mb / s above the system, the light source has a certain line width , May have a greater impact on the relay distance. Now, the use of dynamic single longitudinal mode lasers, especially multi-quantum well lasers (MQW), even the transmission rate of 2.5Gb / s system is almost free from dispersion restrictions.

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